Wolfe E.R., Kautz S., Singleton S.L., Ballhorn D.J. (2018) Differences in foliar endophyte communities of red alder (Alnus rubra) exposed to varying air pollutant levels. Botany. doi: 10.1139/CJB-2018-0085. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Wolfe E., Tyler J., Ronan W., Sands-Gouner S., Shaw C., Balkan M.A., Kautz S. (2018) Quantitative effects of soil salinity on the symbiosis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and Bradyrhizobium in Costa Rica. J Appl Bot Food Qual 91:304–309. doi: DOI:10.5073/JABFQ.2018.091.039 [pdf]

Vadassery J., Ballhorn D.J., Fleming S.R., Mazars C., Pandey S.P., Schmidt A., Schuman M.C., Yeh K., Yilamujian A., Mithöfer A. (2018) Neomycin: An Effective Inhibitor of Jasmonate-Induced Reactions in Plants. J Plant Growth Regul 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s00344-018-9884-x. [pdf]


Ballhorn D.J., Elias J.D., Balkan M.A., Fordyce R.F. (2017) Colonization by nitrogen‑fixing Frankia bacteria causes short‑term increases in herbivore susceptibility in red alder (Alnus rubra) seedlings. Oecologia 184:497–506. doi: 10.1007/s00442-017-3888-2. [pdf]

Younginger B.S., Ballhorn D.J. (2017) Fungal endophyte communities in the temperate fern Polystichum munitum show early colonization and extensive temporal turnover. Am J Bot 104:1188–1194. doi: 10.3732/AJB.1700149. [pdf]

Eppley T.M., Tan C.L., Arrigo-Nelson S.J., Donati G., Ballhorn D.J., Ganzorn J.U. (2017) High Energy or Protein Concentrations in Food as Possible Offsets for Cyanide Consumption by Specialized Bamboo Lemurs in Madagascar. Int J Primatol 38:881–899. doi: 10.1007/s10764-017-9987-4. [pdf]

Godschalx A.L., Tran V.Y., Ballhorn D.J. (2017) Host plant cyanotype determines degree of rhizobial symbiosis. Ecosphere 8:. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1929. [pdf]

Kautz S., Williams T., Ballhorn D.J. (2017) Ecological Importance of Cyanogenesis and Extrafloral Nectar in Invasive English Laurel, Prunus laurocerasus. Northwest Sci 91:214–221. doi: 10.3955/046.091.0210. [pdf]

Younginger B.S., Sirová D., Cruzan M.B., Ballhorn D.J. (2017) Is Biomass a Reliable Estimate of Plant Fitness? Appl Plant Sci 5:1600094. doi: 10.3732/apps.1600094. [pdf]


Godschalx A.L., Stady L., Watzig B., Ballhorn D.J. (2016) Is protection against florivory consistent with the optimal defense hypothesis? BMC Plant Biol 16:1–9. doi: 10.1186/s12870-016-0719-2. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Rakotoarivelo F.P., Kautz S. (2016) Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar. PLoS One 11:1–25. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158935. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Schädler M., Elias J.D., Millar J.A., Kautz S. (2016) Friend or foe - Light availability determines the relationship between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). PLoS One 11:1–12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154116. [pdf]

Schädler M., Ballhorn D.J. (2016) Beneficial Soil Microbiota as Mediators of the Plant Defensive Phenotype and Aboveground Plant-Herbivore Interactions. In: Progress in Botany 78. pp 305–344. [pdf]



Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Laumann J.M. (2015) Herbivore damage induces a transgenerational increase of cyanogenesis in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Chemoecology DOI 10.1007/s00049-015-0201-x. [pdf]

Godschalx A.L., Schädler M., Trisel J.A., Balkan M.A., Ballhorn D.J. (2015) Ants are less attracted to the extrafloral nectar of plants with symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Ecology 96:348-354. [pdf]


Blue E., Kay J., Younginger B., Ballhorn D.J. (2015) Differential effects of type and quantity of leaf damage on growth, reproduction and denfese of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) Plant Biol 17:712-719. [pdf]


Ballhorn D.J. (2015) Primings seeds for increased beta-glucosidase activity in progeny plant, by contacting parent plant with exogenous jasmonic acid, maturing seeds of parent plant, and harvesting seeds. Patent number WO2015054541-A1; Patent Assignee: UNIVE PORTLAND STATE; Inventor(s) Ballhorn D.J.



Kautz S., Trisel J.A., Ballhorn D.J. (2014) Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean. J Chem Ecol 40:1186-1196. [pdf]



Ballhorn D.J., Younginger B., Kautz S. (2014) Aboveground pathogens inhibit belowground rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi in Phaseolus vulgaris. BMC Plant Biol 14:321. [pdf]



Ballhorn D.J., Godschalx A.L., Smart S.M., Kautz S, Schädler M. (2014) Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness. Oecologia 176:811-824. [pdf]


Ballhorn D.J., Elias J.D. (2014) Salinity-mediated cyanogenesis in white clover affects trophic interactions. Ann Bot 114:357-366. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kay J., Kautz S. (2014) Quantitative effects of leaf area removal on indirect defense of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in nature. J Chem Ecol 40:294-296 [pdf]




Ballhorn D.J., Godschalx A.L., Kautz S. (2013) Co-variation of chemical and mechanical defenses in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Chem Ecol 39:413-417. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S. & Heil M. (2013) Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles. PLoS ONE 8(2):e55602. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S. & Schädler M. (2013) Induced plant defense via volatile production is dependent on rhizobial symbiosis. Oecologia 172:833-846. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S. (2013) How useful are olfactometer experiments in chemical ecology research? Comm Int Biol 6:e24787. [pdf]

Millar J.A., Ballhorn D.J. (2013) Effect of mycorrhizal colonization and light limitation on growth and reproduction of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J App Bot Food Qual 86:172-179. [pdf]

De Roissart A., de la Pena E, Van Oyen L., Van Leeuwen T., Ballhorn D.J., Bonte D. (2013) The presence of root-feeding nematodes - Not AMF - Affects an herbivore dispersal strategy. Acta Oecolog 52:38-44. [pdf]


Wybouw N., Balabanidou V., Ballhorn D.J., Dermauw W., Grbic M., Vontas J., Van Leeuwen T. (2012) A horizontally transferrd cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant change. I Biochem Mol Biol. [pdf]

Kautz S., Ballhorn D.J., Kroiss J., Pauls S.U., Moreau, C.S., Eilmus, S., Strohm, E & Heil M. (2012) The acacia-Pseudomyrmex interaction - Mutualists monopolize hosts while parasites join to exploit. PLoS ONE 7(5): e37691. [pdf]

Millar J.A., Ballhorn D.J. (2012) Effects of light limitation on plant-rhizobia and plant-mycorrhiza interactions. Anthos 4(2). [pdf]



Ballhorn D.J., Reisdorff C., & Pfanz H. (2011) Quantitative effects of enhanced CO2 on jasmonic acid induced plant volatiles of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Appl Bot Food Qual 84: 65-71. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J. (2011) Constraints of simultaneous resistance to a fungal pathogen and an insect herbivore in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Chem Ecol 37:141-144. [pdf]

Thamer S., Schädler M., Bonte D. & Ballhorn D.J. (2011) Dual benefit from a belowground symbiosis: nitrogen fixing rhizobia promote growth and defense against a specialist herbivore in a cyanogenic plant. Plant & Soil 341: 209-219. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Jensen M., Schmitt I., Heil M. & Hegeman A.D. (2011) Genetic and environmental effects on plant defences against herbivores. J Ecol 99: 313-326. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Schmitt I., Fankhauser J.D., Katagiri F. & Pfanz H. (2011) CO2 mediated changes of plant traits and their effects on herbivores are determined by leaf age. Ecol Entomol 36:1-13. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J. (2011) Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. Book chapter: Cyanogenic glycosides in nuts and seeds. V.R. Preedy, R.R. Watson & V. Patel (eds.), Academic Press, Elsevier Science and Technology, MO, USA. [pdf]


Bonte D., de Roissart A., Vandegehuchte M., Ballhorn D.J. & de la Peña E. (2010) Local adaptation of aboveground herbivores towards plant phenotypes induced by biotic belowground agents. PLoS ONE e11174. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S. & Lieberei R. (2010) How generalist and specialist herbivores respond to various cyanogenic plant features. Entomol Exp Appl 134: 245-259. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Pietrowski A. & Lieberei R. (2010) Direct trade-off between cyanogenesis and resistance to a fungal pathogen in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). J Ecol 98: 226-236 (+ Cover). [pdf]


Kautz S., Pauls S.U., Ballhorn D.J., Lumbsch H.T., Heil M. (2009) Polygynous supercolonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, an inferior colony founder. Mol Ecol 18: 5180-5194. [pdf]

Yi H.S., Heil M., Adame-Alvarez, R.M., Ballhorn D.J. & Ryu C.M. (2009) Airborne induction and priming of plant defenses against a bacterial pathogen. Plant Physiol 151: 2152-2161. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Heil M. & Hegeman A.D. (2009) Analyzing plant defenses in nature. PS & B 4: 743-745. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Heil M. & Hegeman A.D. (2009) Cyanogenesis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is an efficient and direct defense in nature. PLoS ONE e5450. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S. & Rakotoarivelo F.P. (2009) Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in Cathariostachys madagascariensis ― the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in southeastern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 71: 305-315. [pdf]

Kautz S., Schmid V.S., Trindl A., Heinze J., Ballhorn D.J. & Heil M. (2009) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the plant-ant Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus (Formicidae: Pseudomyrmecinae) and cross-testing for two congeneric species. Mol Ecol Res 9: 1016-1019. [pdf]


Ale-Agha N., Jensen M., Brassmann M., Kautz S., Eilmus S. & Ballhorn D.J. (2008) Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (South Mexico) Part II. Comm Agr Appl Biol Sci 73: 147-155. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Schiwy S., Jensen M. & Heil M. (2008) Quantitative variability of direct chemical defense in primary and secondary leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and consequences for a natural herbivore. J Chem Ecol 34: 1298-1301. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Lion U. & Heil M. (2008) Qualitative variability of lima bean’s VOC bouquets and its consequences on plant-plant communication. PS & B 3:1005-1007. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Kautz S., Lion U. & Heil M. (2008) Trade-offs between direct and indirect defences of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). J Ecol 96: 971-980 (+ Cover). [pdf]




Ballhorn D.J., Pietrowski A., Heil M. & Lieberei R. (2007) Quantitative effects of cyanogenesis on an adapted herbivore. J Chem Ecol 33: 2195-2208. [pdf]




Ballhorn D.J. & Lieberei R. (2006) Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis depends on host plant cyanogenic capacity. J Chem Ecol 32: 1861-1865. [pdf]

Ballhorn D.J., Heil M. & Lieberei R. (2006) Phenotypic plasticity of cyanogenesis in lima bean Phaseolus lunatus— Activity and activation of β-glucosidase. J Chem Ecol 32: 261-275. [pdf]




Ballhorn D.J., Lieberei R. & Ganzhorn J.U. (2005) Plant cyanogenesis of Phaseolus lunatus and its relevance for herbivore-plant interaction: The importance of quantitative data. J Chem Ecol 31: 1445-1473. [pdf]

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